“刺杀希特勒”- 施陶芬伯格资料汇编

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资料汇编

刺杀希特勒行动始末

柴野(2005.07)

今年7月20日是刺杀希特勒60周年纪念日。1944年7月20日,德国陆军上校施陶芬伯格与 一些反战的德国军官发动了刺杀希特勒的行动,但不幸失败。事后,涉案的德国军官几乎全被党卫军残酷处死。记者在纪念日之前采访了德国抵抗运动纪念馆馆长施泰恩巴赫教授,他讲述了关于施陶芬伯格刺杀希特勒的一些鲜为人知的细节。今年德国将举行各种活动,隆重纪念二战中因反抗纳粹而牺牲的人士。如何评价刺杀希特勒的行动在德国史学界、甚至在政界有过较长时间的争论,真心纪念这一反战事件也才是近十年的事情。


刺杀希特勒

  1944年7月20日早上8点,施陶芬伯格从柏林登上军用飞机前往地名为“狼窝”的一个位于波兰偏僻树林里的纳粹指挥部,这里四周布满了地雷,时刻有警卫和狼狗在监视。10点30分,飞机在“狼窝”军用机场降落,施陶芬伯格手提公文包经过三道岗哨进入“狼窝”的中心,在这个公文包中藏有两颗重1950克的炸弹。参加希特勒亲自主持的军事会议的军官们纷纷坐在一起吃着丰盛的早餐。会议预计在中午13点开始,施陶芬伯格必须在开会前启动定时炸弹的点火装置,这样炸弹将在15分钟后起爆。然而希特勒12点半钟来到会议室并决定立即召开会议,因为他会后还要会见意大利首相墨索里尼。希特勒提前开会的决定把施陶芬伯格搞得措手不及,他急忙躲到一处着手组装炸弹。有几位军官甚至从他附近走过,看见他在包什么东西,但谁能想到,施陶芬伯格竟敢在希特勒的指挥部组装炸药,而且他是位众人皆知人物,1943年他在突尼斯的一次战斗中严重受伤,炮弹炸断了他的右手,左手只剩下三个指头,右眼完全失明。由于他指挥正确、作战英勇很受希特勒赏识。希特勒曾表扬他是一个有思想、很理智的指挥官。因此没有人会怀疑施陶芬伯格在做什么“坏事”。对施陶芬伯格这样一个残疾人来说,要在几分钟内组装好炸弹有多么困难。匆忙中施陶芬伯格只装配了一枚炸弹就赶往会议室。施陶芬伯格本来开会就经常迟到,这次晚来也没有引起别人的注意。他主动上前与正在讲话的希特勒握了一下手,并把装有炸弹的公文包放在希特勒旁边的桌子腿前,两分钟后施借口打个电话离开了会议室。几分钟后轰隆一声巨响,会议室笼罩在烟尘中,碎片横飞,喊声顿起,数名军官被炸得血肉模糊,一个军官被汽浪弹出了窗外。在参会的24人中有4人当场死亡,水泥屋顶坍塌了一半,地板上炸出一个大坑,但希特勒只是受了轻伤。由于施陶芬伯格只使用了一枚炸弹,而不是原计划中的两枚,炸弹缺乏足够的威力,特别是厚重的橡木桌面成了希特勒的保护屏障,在炸弹爆炸时希特勒正趴在桌子的军用地图上看着什么,这使他躲过一劫。


从希特勒的拥护者到行刺人

  施陶芬伯格1907年出生在德国一个贵族家庭,他父亲是德国皇家军队的将军,他从小生活环境优越,中小学上的是贵族学校。1923年他15岁时就曾在一篇作文中写到,他要为德意志人民去战斗。希特勒上台前他毕业于德国军事学院,不久就加入了国防军。早期的施陶芬伯格是一名纳粹的崇拜者,他十分赞赏希特勒关于纯净德意志民族的说法,以能为希特勒作战为荣。甚至在结婚时他也一身戎装,他说,军人在任何时候都是军人,婚礼也不例外。在渡婚假时他选择去罗马参加莫索里尼执政10周年纪念仪式。施陶芬伯格学历高,聪明能干,组织能力强,很快就被提拔为高级军官。但他慢慢地开始对纳粹党徒们的横行霸道,尤其对希特勒在军事上的丧心病狂深为不满和厌恶。1943年底,德军在各个战场上已开始节节败退,成千上万的德国士兵死于他乡,而希特勒却更加一意孤行。从这时起施陶芬伯格经常说,我必须采取行动拯救我们的国家,只有一个办法就是除掉希特勒。通过朋友的介绍施陶芬伯格结识了军队中的反纳粹小组成员,他们是一批对纳粹深恶痛绝的德国军人,正在密谋策划暗杀希特勒的行动。从此施陶芬伯格积极参与了策划暗杀希特勒的准备活动。他们的打算是,除掉希特勒,接管政府,组成以贝克将军为首的临时机构并与反法西斯盟国进行谈判,签订和约。1944年7月1日施陶芬伯格被任命为国内驻防军总司令部最高长官,从而有了接触希特勒的机会,从7月初起施陶芬伯格就一直把炸药放在公文包中,准备见机行事炸死希特勒。在7月中旬他曾三次与希特勒直接接触,但由于希特勒的左膀右臂戈林和希姆莱不在场,而未下决心动手,因为反纳粹小组坚持把希特勒及其主战骨干一网打尽。7月20日施陶芬伯格将再暗杀行动失败后,希特勒立即展开血腥报复。当夜凌晨施陶芬伯格等四名主要参案者被枪决,死时施陶芬伯格只有35岁,随后110名涉案军官被捕。在后来的几天里有过反纳粹言行的5000多人被投入监狱。凡是参与暗杀希特勒的军官都惨遭“盖世太保”的酷刑后被害,这些人要么被钢琴上的金属丝吊死,要么被用钩子钩死。处死的部分过程被拍摄下来,供希特勒细细“欣赏”。据德国史书记载,被杀的100多名德国军官没有一个人对自己的行动表示忏悔,他们默默写下遗嘱,高呼口号英勇就义。

  应该说1944年7月20日的这次刺杀希特勒行动是德国反抗纳粹统治的一次重要标志,但很多德国人并没有把它看作是理所当然的纪念日。到了二十世纪60年代有一半以上的人不同意用施陶芬伯格的名字命名任何一所学校或街道。一些人甚至把施陶芬伯格这些人称为叛国者。一个曾经参加过刺杀希特勒的人从当时的西德跑到东德,德国舆论竟称,当过一次叛国者的人永远是叛国者。直到1983年有关部门才开始把反法西斯的历史资料集中存放起来,以示重视。但很大一部分史学家坚持认为,在第二次世界大战时反对希特勒的只是少数对纳粹行为不满的人,并没有形成真正的反战力量。因此当时很多文字在描述“7?0”行动时都使用贬义的“政变”字眼。长时间以来不少德国人仍然不愿意特别谈及第三帝国和二战。直到80年代后期,德国领导人开始正视德国二战的历史。德国总理施罗德曾讲过,如果现在的青少年连那段历史都不知道,我们怎么能避免历史重演呢?那些长眠地下的受害者怎么会瞑目呢?这段历史又怎能用“不堪回首”四个字了得?

This combination image shows, at left, an undated AP file photo of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, and at right, a combination of 2 photos provided Tuesday, June 24, 2008 by United Artists showing von Stauffenberg and actor Tom Cruise. What looked at first like another PR blow to "Valkyrie," the twice-delayed Tom Cruise film based on the true story of Claus von Stauffenberg, turned out to be a case of mistaken photo identity. From AP Photo by AP.

施陶芬伯格(左)和阿汤哥扮演的剧照(中)和阿汤哥本人照片(右)比较。

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-C0716-0046-003, Claus Schenk Graf v. Stauffenberg.jpg

1936年

File:Stauffenberg's office.JPG

纪念馆中的施陶芬伯格办公室。

A visitor looks at pictures of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg in his former office, now a part of the German Resistance Memorial Centre, in Berlin January 19, 2009. US actor Tom Cruise plays von Stauffenberg, a German officer who was at the centre of an assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler on July 20 1944 in the movie "Valkyrie", set to be released in Germany on January 22, 2009. From Getty Images by AFP/Getty Images.

A visitor looks at pictures of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg in his former office, now a part of the German Resistance Memorial Centre, in Berlin January 19, 2009. US actor Tom Cruise plays von Stauffenberg, a German officer who was at the centre of an assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler on July 20 1944 in the movie "Valkyrie", set to be released in Germany on January 22, 2009. From Getty Images by AFP/Getty Images.

参观者站在原先的施陶芬伯格办公室内观看历史照片,现在为柏林德国抵抗力量纪念中心的一部分。

A man walks past a wall featuring portraits of officers and other officials involved in the plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944 at the German Resistance Memorial Centre in Berlin January 19, 2009. US actor Tom Cruise plays Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, a German officer who was at the centre of an assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler on July 20 1944 in the movie "Valkyrie", set to be released in Germany on January 22, 2009. From Getty Images by AFP/Getty Images.

德国抵抗力量纪念中心的一面纪念墙,上面贴满了参与刺杀希特勒行动的其他德国官员照片

File:Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg Sterbeurkunde 1944.jpg

枪决施陶芬伯格后出具的死亡证明,枪杀于班贝格(Bamberg)。(1951年出具)

施陶芬伯格与两个女儿。

1933年与尼娜合影

1942年

Das Bild zeigt Claus Graf von Stauffenberg mit seinem Vater Alfred und seinen beiden Br黡ern Berthold und Alexander. Alle vier gucken sehr ernst. (Rechte: Gedenkst鋞te Deutscher Widerstand)

施陶芬伯格三兄弟与父亲

Zerst鰎te Lagebaracke in der "Wolfsschanze"

戈林、鲍曼等查勘爆炸现场。

Besichtigung der "Wolfsschanze"

希特勒查勘爆炸现场。

The Conference Room at the

爆炸后的现场清晰照片。

Nina von Lerchenfeld

Nina,1929

 

纪念碑

1953年7月20日,纪念德国抵抗力量大会。

左2:施陶芬伯格的儿子贝尔索尔特,中;尼娜,右2:菲利特里希-奥尔布里希特将军的遗孀,爱娃。

Stauffenberg (links) mit Konteradmiral von Puttkamer, General Bodenschatz und Hitler kurz vor dem Anschlag in Hitlers Hauptquartier 'Wolfsschanze' vom 15. Juli 1944. (Rechte: Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand)

位于东普鲁士拉斯特堡的希特勒指挥部 - 狼窝,希特勒接见将领,最左面的是施陶芬伯格。

(Wolfs Lair) at Rastenburg in East Prussia

Idylle in Lautlingen

尼娜和孩子们1942年

Schloss Lautlingen

合影

躡erf鋖liges Portr鋞

尼娜写的回忆录封面

Runder Geburtstag

Nina,2003年,尼娜90岁时的合家欢

Graf Stauffenberg

1933年

Der Attent鋞er als junger Mann

1924年

ninaschenk-6.jpg

1933年结婚典礼

File:Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg - Helmuth James Graf von Moltke.jpg

纪念邮票

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-C0720-0024-001, Berlin, Gedenkveranstaltung zum Attentat auf Hitler.jpg

20周年纪念会会场,1964年,柏林

File:Graf von Stauffenberg .jpg

施陶芬伯格雕像。

施陶芬伯格在柏林的家。

 

左;施陶芬伯格就在这个院子里被处决。右:720事件死难者纪念碑(1964年树立)

1954年阿登纳出席10周年纪念活动

立在该院子里的“720事件死难者纪念铜像”

1984年720事件40周年纪念活动

1999年55周年纪念活动。

A July 20, 2004 file photo shows Philipp Baron von Boeselager, right, one of the last surviving members of the inner circle around Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg that attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler in a bomb attack, is accompanied by his wife Rosy Baroness von Boeselager as they visit the memorial site for the victims of the Hitler Dictatorship in Berlin Ploetzensee on the 60th anniversary of the failed assassination attempt. Von Boeselager died at the age of 90 overnight Thursday, May 1, 2008, sources close to the family confirmed on Friday, May 2, 2008. From AP Photo by Jan Bauer.

刺杀希特勒计划核心成员中唯一的幸存者,菲利浦-巴隆-博伊施拉格(Philipp Baron von Boeselager)

和其妻子露丝(Rosy Baroness von Boeselager) 一起参观纪念中心。

菲利普已经于2008年5月2日夜去世,享年90岁。

Adam von Trott zu Solz with his Wife Clarita (1944)

刺杀事件后被处死的另一名成员,外交部官员Adam von Trott zu Solz

 

附;施陶芬伯格英文小传 

Claus von Stauffenburg

Oberst (Colonel) Claus Philip Maria Schenk Graf von (Count of) Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 - 20 July 1944) - the tall, dynamic German aristocrat and Army officer, leading figure of the failed Army-based coup of 1944 (the July 20 Plot) against the Nazi regime during WW II.

claus-von-stauffenberg.jpg
Claus von Stauffenberg

He was born the third of three sons in Jettingen in Swabia near Ulm, in the state of Baden- Wurttemberg to one of the oldest and most distinguished aristocratic South German Catholic families. Among his ancestors were several famous Prussians, including most notably August von Gneisenau. His name points to the imperial Stauffen Berg mountain and castle. Stauffenberg was very well educated and was inclined to literature but eventually took up a military career. In 1926 he joined the family regiment in Bamberg, the Reiter- und Kavallerieregiment 17 (17th Cavalry Regiment). In 1933 Adolf Hitler came to power and while some aspects of the party were repugnant to him, he was not initially in complete opposition to their ideas, especially in the area of nationalism. However after Kristallnacht in November 1938 he felt that great shame had been brought upon Germany and it had deeply offended his sense of morality and justice. The treatment of the Jews and the suppression of religion in Germany made Stauffenberg more and more an opponent of the Nazis.

In the military, he had worked his way through the grades and on 1 January 1937 he was promoted to Hauptmann (captain), a rank he would hold for the next six years. His regiment became part of the Sixth Panzer Division and was involved in the occupation of the Sudetenland and, once war broke out, in the Polish, French and Russian campaigns. Towards the end of the French campaign (31 May 1940) he was awarded the Iron Cross First Class.

On 1 January 1943 he was promoted to Oberstleutnant (lt. colonel) and was soon transferred to the North African campaign. There while he was scouting out a new command area his vehicle was strafed by marauding Allied fighter-bombers and he was severely wounded. He spent three months in hospital and ended up losing his left eye, his right hand and the fourth and fifth fingers of his left hand - though he later joked that he hardly knew what he had done with all ten fingers when he had them.

While his uncle, Graf Niklaus von Üxküll, approached him to join the resistance movement after the Polish campaign in 1939, it was Stauffenberg's individual conscience and his religious convictions that urged him to act. Initially he felt powerless as he was in no position of authority to help organise a coup, but finally in 1943 after recuperating from his wounds he was posted as a staff officer to the Replacement Army located in an office on the Bendlerstrasse in Berlin. Here, one of his superiors was General Friedrich Olbricht, a committed member of the resistance movement. In the Replacement Army they had a unique opportunity to launch a coup as one of its functions was to have "Operation Valkyrie" in place - a contingency measure to which would let the Replacement Army assume control of the Reich in the event of internal disturbances where communications with the military high command were blocked. Ironically, this plan had been agreed to by Hitler and was now secretly to become the means of sweeping him from power.

While Stauffenberg's part in the plan required him to be at the Bendlerstrasse office to telephone regular Army units from around the Reich to arrest leaders of political organisations such as the Sicherheitsdienst and the Gestapo, in the end Stauffenberg was the only one of the conspirators who had regular access to Hitler, at his briefing meetings. Even with only three fingers remaining, Stauffenberg, in 1944 now promoted to Oberst (colonel), agreed to carry out the assassination of the German Führer Adolf Hitler himself. The attempt took place at the Führer's briefing hut at the military high command in Rastenburg, East Prussia on July 20, 1944. Von Stauffenberg's briefcase was packed with explosives and a simple ten to fifteen minute timer set. He entered the briefing room where Hitler was present, placed the briefcase under the table and then quickly left the room unnoticed. From a nearby shelter he waited until the explosion tore through the hut and from what he saw, he was convinced that no one could have survived such a blast. He and his aide de camp, Leutnant Werner von Haeften, quickly walked away and talked their way out of the heavily guarded compound to fly back to Berlin in a waiting Heinkel He 111. While in transit, an order was issued from the Führer's headquarters to shoot them down, but the order landed on the desk of a fellow-conspirator, Friedrich Georgi of the air staff, and was not passed on.

Hitler survived the attempt on his life and once he broadcast a message on the state radio it became obvious that the coup attempt had failed. Shortly afterwards the conspirators were overpowered in their Bendlerstrasse office, with Stauffenberg being shot in the shoulder.

General Friedrich Fromm, Commander-in-Chief of the Replacement Army and himself a suspected conspirator who was later executed, held an impromptu court martial and condemned the ringleaders of the conspiracy to death. Stauffenberg along with fellow officers General Olbricht, Leutnant von Haeften and Oberst Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim were later shot that night by firing squad in the courtyard of the Bendler-Block (War Ministry). As his turn came, Stauffenberg spoke his last words: 'Es lebe unser geheimes Deutschland!' ('Long live our secret Germany!') His eldest brother Berthold, another central figure in the plot was executed later.

Today Claus von Stauffenberg is celebrated as a hero and symbol of the German resistance to the Nazi regime. Since the war the Bendler-Block has become a memorial to the failed anti-Nazi resistance movement. The street's name was ceremonially changed from "Bendlerstrasse" to "Stauffenbergstrasse" and the Bendler-Block now houses a permanent exhibition with more than 5,000 photographs and documents showing the various resistance organisations at work during the Hitler era. The courtyard where the officers were shot is now a site of remembrance with a plaque commemorating the events and a memorial bronze figure of a young man with his hands symbolically bound.


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